During a courtesy visit with Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her official Ganabhaban residence in Dhaka, World Bank (WB) Executive Director Parameswaran Iyer expressed that developing nations could find value in emulating Bangladesh’s development approach.
He commended the country’s remarkable progress, citing Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina’s strategic leadership and meticulous plans. Iyer conveyed his sentiment during a subsequent media briefing, highlighting that Bangladesh’s model could serve as an exemplar for other developing nations.
The Prime Minister shared insights with the WB official about her administration’s comprehensive uplift programs, aimed at fostering holistic development across Bangladesh. She underscored the transformative strides achieved through methodical planning and execution under her government’s guidance, particularly emphasizing poverty alleviation and improved quality of life for all citizens.
Acknowledging the enduring challenges posed by climate change, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina noted Bangladesh’s resilience despite not being a significant carbon emitter. In response, Iyer pledged the World Bank’s commitment to assisting Bangladesh in implementing its Delta Plan-2100, recognizing the country’s vulnerability to environmental shifts.
Appreciating Bangladesh’s sanitation system, Iyer lauded it as remarkable. He also praised the vibrant role of the private sector in the nation’s development, characterizing it as thriving. Prime Minister Hasina affirmed her government’s dedication to fostering private sector growth, emphasizing their open-door policy and unwavering support for private enterprise.
In addition to the WB Executive Director and the Prime Minister, the meeting included the presence of Alternative Executive Director of the WB Dr. Ahmad Kaikaus, Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) Secretary Mohammad Salahuddin, and Economic Relations Division Secretary Sharifa Khan, among others.
Decline in Remittances Worries Bangladesh Amid Focus on Forex Reserves
Remittance inflows, a crucial source of USD earnings for Bangladesh, have reached a concerning low, marking the lowest level in three and a half years. This decline comes at a time when Bangladesh is actively seeking to bolster its foreign exchange reserves. According to data released by Bangladesh Bank on a Sunday, remittance inflows stood at $1.34 billion in September 2023, the lowest figure since March 2020 when it was $1.27 billion. Compared to the same month last year, remittances decreased by 12.72 percent or $200 million.
During the first quarter of the fiscal year 2024 (July-September), Bangladesh received $4.91 billion in remittances. This was compared to $4.52 billion during the same period in fiscal year 2020. The decline in remittances has raised concerns among economists and bankers, with hundi, an illegal cross-border money transaction channel, cited as a major reason.
Remitters are drawn to hundi due to its offering of higher exchange rates in comparison to the official channel. Syed Mahbubur Rahman, Managing Director and CEO of Mutual Trust Bank, emphasized the need for the central bank to take action against hundi to reverse the declining trend in remittance inflows through official banking channels.
Zahid Hussain, a former lead economist at the World Bank’s Dhaka Office, pointed out that the primary reason for the drop in remittances is the exchange rate disparity between the banking channel and the kerb market. Remitters receive Tk 112.75 per USD, including an incentive, through the banking channel, while in the kerb market, they get Tk 117 to Tk 118, resulting in a difference of nearly Tk 5 to Tk 6.
An anonymous senior bank manager and director revealed that some businessmen are encouraging remitters to use hundi, possibly due to the uncertainty surrounding the upcoming national polls. Zahid Hussain also noted that the number of Bangladeshi remitters has not decreased, and the countries where they predominantly work are not experiencing economic turmoil.
Despite the declining remittance inflow, Bangladesh has witnessed a substantial increase in the number of overseas workers. In 2022, after the easing of pandemic restrictions, Bangladesh exported a record 11.35 lakh manpower, the highest in its history. In the first eight months of 2023, this figure stood at 8.82 lakh, surpassing the 2021 yearly figure of 6.17 lakh.
The impact of this decline in remittances is being felt on Bangladesh’s foreign exchange reserves, which have been steadily decreasing. In September, reserves dwindled to $21.14 billion, compared to $36.5 billion in the same month the previous year. The devaluation of the Taka against the USD continues due to declining reserves, with the interbank exchange rate recently increased to Tk 110.5.
While the government’s austerity measures curbed imports of luxury goods, leading to an overall decline in import payments in July, the cost of essential goods imports has risen significantly due to USD price hikes. This situation has prevented Bangladesh from benefiting from the drop in global goods prices.
Bangladesh, India Explore Free Trade Agreement Talks to Strengthen Economic Ties
Bangladesh and India have engaged in discussions regarding the initiation of talks for a free trade agreement aimed at bolstering their economic ties. This noteworthy development emerged during an official-level meeting of the Joint Working Group on Trade (JWG) between the two nations, which took place in Dhaka last week.
The discussions, as outlined by the Indian Commerce Ministry, encompassed a wide array of bilateral issues. These included addressing port restrictions, laying the groundwork for the commencement of a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA), aligning standards, mutual recognition of standards, and ensuring the supply of essential commodities to Bangladesh.
These annual meetings serve as a crucial platform for both countries to delve into key trade-related concerns and explore opportunities for collaboration, trade expansion, technical cooperation, and diversification of their economic engagement.
CEPA, a variant of a free trade agreement, involves a substantial reduction or elimination of customs duties on a substantial portion of traded goods between the participating nations. Additionally, CEPA facilitates the easing of regulations to encourage trade in services and investments.
In the course of the meeting, discussions also revolved around matters pertaining to the enhancement of road and rail infrastructure, regional connectivity via multi-modal transportation, and the development or fortification of infrastructure at Land Customs Stations and Integrated Check Posts, as well as the establishment of border haats.
Notably, bilateral trade between the two nations has seen fluctuations, with it registering at $14.2 billion in the fiscal year 2022-23, compared to $8.13 billion in the preceding fiscal year 2021-22.
Country’s Goods Export Witnesses Strong Growth in September, Falls Short of Target
In September of this year, the country’s export earnings from goods demonstrated robust growth, surging by 10.37 percent and reaching a total of $4,310.33 million. However, these single-month export figures fell short by 7.05 percent of the strategic export target set at $4,637 million, as reported by the latest statistics from the Export Promotion Bureau (EPB).
Comparatively, the export earnings for September in the previous year amounted to $3,905.07 million, indicating a noteworthy increase in the current year.
Taking a broader view, the data from EPB revealed that the overall export earnings during the first quarter of the current fiscal year (July-September) saw a significant growth of 9.51 percent, totaling $13,685.44 million. This exceeded the strategic target of $13,988 million set for the same period.
In contrast, during the same July-September period in the last fiscal year (FY23), the export earnings were recorded at $12,496.89 million, illustrating a noticeable upswing in the current fiscal year.
Among the various exportable items, the Ready-Made Garment (RMG) sector continued to dominate the overseas market during this three-month period, amassing an impressive $11,617.5 million with a growth rate of 13.07 percent.
Breaking down the RMG category, knitwear stood out as the frontrunner, securing the highest export amount of $6,762.59 million, followed closely by woven garments with earnings of $4,854.91 million.
For the current fiscal year, the government has set an ambitious target to export goods worth $62 billion, aiming for an 11.59 percent year-on-year growth. This follows a remarkable achievement in the previous fiscal year (FY23), where exports reached a record-breaking $55.56 billion despite challenging global conditions and uncertainties.
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